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In the same year, the first shipment of coal was dispatched to Sydney. A settlement was again attempted in 1804, as a place of secondary punishment for unruly convicts.
The settlement was named Coal River, also Kingstown and then renamed Newcastle, after England's famous coal port.
During World War II, Newcastle was an important industrial centre for the Australian war effort.
In the early hours of 8 June 1942, the Japanese submarine I-21 briefly shelled Newcastle.
The CBD itself is shifting to the west, towards the major urban renewal area known as "Honeysuckle".
This renewal, to run for another 10 years, is a major part of arresting the shift of business and residents to the suburbs.
The link with Newcastle upon Tyne, England its namesake and also whence many of the 19th century coal miners came, is still obvious in some of the place-names – such as Jesmond, Hexham, Wickham, Wallsend and Gateshead.
The company had a fleet of freighters as well as several fast passenger vessels, including the PS Newcastle and the PS Namoi.Among the areas hit within the city were dockyards, the steel works, Parnell Place in the city's East End, the breakwall and Art Deco ocean baths.There were no casualties in the attack and damage was minimal.The Namoi had first-class cabins with the latest facilities.Because of the coal supply, small ships plied between Newcastle and Sydney, Brisbane, Melbourne and Adelaide, carrying coal to gas works and bunkers for shipping, and railways.