It should be added that only in the last years of the XIXth century was it definitely established that Greenland is not connected by land with the other parts of the continent of America, i.e. [p27]  The climate and character of Greenland are those of an Arctic country. The best known of the colonists was Eric the Red, who was an inhabitant of Iceland of Norwegian origin ; it was at that time that two settlements called Eystribygd and Vestribygd were founded towards the southern end of the western coast.The "Inland Ice" is difficult to traverse, and parts of the coast - particularly of the East coast - are for months together difficult of access owing to the influence of the Polar current and the stormy winds on the icebergs and the floe ice and owing to the frequent spells of bad weather. These settlements appear to have existed as an independent State for some time, but became tributary to the kingdom of Norway in the XIIIth century.  Information as to these early Nordic settlements and as to the extent to which the settlers dominated the remainder of the country is very scanty.[p23] The Court, composed as above, delivers the following judgment:  By an Application instituting proceedings, filed with the Registry of the Court on July 12th, 1931, in accordance with Article 40 of the Statute and Article 35 of the Rules of Court, the Royal Danish Government, relying on the optional clause of Article 36, paragraph 2, of the Statute, brought before the Permanent Court of International Justice a suit against the Royal Norwegian Government on the ground that the latter Government had, on July 10th, 1931, published a proclamation declaring that it had proceeded to occupy certain territories in Eastern Greenland, which, in the contention of the Danish Government, were subject to the sovereignty of the Crown of Denmark.
of Greenwich, has a total area of about 2,200,000 square kilometres; five sixths of this area are covered by the "Inland Ice", so that only a narrow strip of varying width along the coasts is free of permanent ice.
Accordingly, the Court declares that, in so far as the terms of Article 52 of the Statute are applicable to the evidence produced by one of the Parties to the case, the consent of the other Party, which is required under that Article, may be regarded as having been obtained.
 The submission of the case being in all respects regular, these are the circumstances in which the Court is now called upon to give judgment.
[p25]  The Norwegian Government repeats in its Rejoinder the submissions made in its Counter-Case.
 In the course of a series of public sittings held between November 21st, 1932, and February 7th, 1933, the Court heard the statements, replies, rejoinders and observations presented by: MM.