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His attributes included the (a pine-cone tipped staff), a drinking cup and a crown of ivy. His account of the wanderings of Dionysos varies from that of Apollodorus, with its focus on stories of the East.
He was usually accompanied by a troop of Satyrs and Mainades (wild female devotees). 582, &c.) In all his wanderings and travels the god had rewarded those who had received him kindly and adopted his worship : he gave them vines and wine. § 2); the Argives, on the other hand, said, that he had emerged with his mother from the Alcyonian lake. I will provide an overview of this contents of this epic at a later stage (which due to its size is not possible to quote here in depth).
DIONYSOS (Dionysus) was the Olympian god of wine, vegetation, pleasure, festivity, madness and wild frenzy. For MYTHS of Dionysos' journey to the Underwold and his apotheosis: (1) Divinity-Apotheosis of Dionysus (receives full honours as a god on earth) (2) Journey of Dionysus to the Underworld (restores Semele from Hades) (3) Ascension of Dionysus & Hephaestus to Olympus Several other stories are absent from Apollodorus' account.
He was depicted as either an older, bearded god or an effeminate, long-haired youth. For other MYTHS of Dionysos' wanderings see: (1) Dionysus Favour: Oeneus The late Roman-era Greek poet Nonnus wrote an epic poem describing the birth and adventures of Dionysos, centred on his War against the Indians.
He is also called both by Greeks and Romans Bacchus (Bakchos), that is, the noisy or riotous god, which was originally a mere epithet or surname of Dionysus, but does not occur till after the time of Herodotus. 9.) The same diversity of opinions prevails in regard to the native place of the god, which in the common tradition is Thebes, while in others we find India, Libya, Crete, Dracanum in Samos, Naxos, Elis, Eleutherae, or Teos, mentioned as his birthplace. Semele was terrified and overpowered by the sight, and being seized by the fire, she gave premature birth to a child. The traditions about the education of Dionysus, as well as about the personages who undertook it, differ as much as those about his parentage and birthplace. Mystis, moreover, is said to have instructed him in the mysteries (Nonn. 4); Macris, the daughter of Aristaeus, received him from the hands of Hermes, and fed him with honey. Thee it becomes to circle thy locks with flowers of the springtime, thee to cover thy head with Tyrian turban, or thy smooth brow to wreathe with the ivy's clustering berries; now to fling loose thy lawless-streaming locks, again to bind them in a knot close-drawn; in such guise as when, fearing thy stepdame's [Hera's] wrath, thou didst grow to manhood with false-seeming limbs, a pretended maiden with golden ringlets, with saffron girdle binding thy garments.
According to the common tradition, Dionysus was the son of Zeus and Semele, the daughter of Cadmus of Thebes (Hom. 67) further mentions a tradition, according to which he was a son of Ammon and Amaltheia, and that Ammon, from fear of Rhea, carried the child to a cave in the neighbourhood of mount Nysa, in a lonely island formed by the river Triton. Besides the nymphs of mount Nysa in Thrace, the muses, Lydae, Bassarae, Macetae, Mimallones (Eustath. So thereafter this soft vesture has pleased thee, folds loose hanging and the long-trailing mantle.
He married Ariadne, daughter of King Minos of Krete (Crete), and their sons became kings and princes of the best wine-producing regions in ancient Greece. Cicero ( 23) distinguishes five Dionysi, and Diodorus (iii. The common story, which makes Dionysus a son of Semele by Zeus, runs as follows: Hera, jealous of Semele, visited her in the disguise of a friend, or an old woman, and persuaded her to request Zeus to appear to her in the same glory and majesty in which he was accustomed to approach his own wife Hera. 1137) saved the child from the flames: it was sewed up in the thigh of Zeus, and thus came to maturity. Semele was found dead, and was solemnly buried, but Dionysus was brought up by Ino, who happened at the time to be at Brasiae. 1131.) On mount Nysa, Bromie and Bacche too are called his nurses. Hermes, however, is mixed up with most of the stories about the infancy of Dionysus, and he was often represented in works of art, in connexion with the infant god. He thence proceeded through Syria, where he flayed Damascus alive, for opposing the introduction of the vine, which Dionysus was believed to have discovered (euretês ampelou). Bright glory of the sky, come hither to the prayers which thine own illustrious Thebes, O Bacchus, offers to thee with suppliant hands.
DIONYSOS, the youthful, beautiful, but effeminate god of wine. When all entreaties to desist from this request were fruitless, Zeus at length complied, and appeared to her in thunder and lightning. Various epithets which are given to the god refer to that occurrence, such as purigenês, mêrorraphês, mêrotraphês and xlv. The plain of Brasiae was, for this reason, afterwards called the garden of Dionysus. 69), and the nymphs Philia, Coronis, and Cleis, in Naxos, whither the child Dionysus was said to have been carried by Zeus (Diod. 52), are named as the beings to whom the care of his infancy was entrusted. Hither turn with favour thy virginal face; with thy star-bright countenance drive away the clouds, the grim threats of Erebus, and greedy fate.
Hera was enraged when she learned of the boy's location and drove the couple mad, causing them to kill both their children and themselves. The Edones, in despair, took their king and put him in chains, and Dionysus had him torn to pieces by horses. § 2.) According to another statement, Dionysus with a host of women came from the islands of the Aegean to Argos, but was conquered by Perseus, who slew many of the women. Rural, ineffable, two-formed, obscure, two-horned, with ivy crowned, and Euion pure: bull-faced and martial, bearer of the vine, endued with counsel prudent and divine: Eubouleos (Eubuleus), whom the leaves of vines adorn, of Zeus and Persephoneia occultly born in beds ineffable; all-blessed power, whom with triennial offerings men adore.
We may, however, remark at once, that all traditions which have reference to a mystic worship of Dionysus, are of a comparatively late origin, that is, they belong to the period subsequent to that in which the Homeric poems were composed; for in those poems Dionysus does not appear as one of the great divinities, and the story of his birth by Zeus and the Bacchic orgies are not alluded to in any way : Dionysus is there simply described as the god who teaches man the preparation of wine, whence he is called the "drunken god " (mainomenos), and the sober king Lycurgus will not, for this reason, tolerate him in his kingdom. Dionysus is the productive, overflowing and intoxicating power of nature, which carries man away from his usual quiet and sober mode of living. 206.) The notion of his being the cultivator and protector of the vine was easily extended to that of his being the protector of trees in general, which is alluded to in various epithets and surnames given him by the poets of antiquity (Paus. For MYTHS of Dionysos in Argos see: (1) Dionysus Wrath: Proetius & the Proetides (2) War of Dionysus against Perseus & the Argives "He [Dionysos] retrieved his mother from Haides' realm, gave her the name Thyone, and escorted her up to the sky." This myth had a place in Argive cult, where Dionysos is said to have descended to Haides through the Alkyonean Lake.
The extraordinary mixture of traditions which we have here had occasion to notice, and which might still be considerably increased, seems evidently to be made up out of the traditions of different times and countries, referring to analogous divinities, and transferred to the Greek Dionysus. As far as the nature and origin of the god Dionysus is concerned, he appears in all traditions as the representative of some power of nature, whereas Apollo is mainly an ethical deity. In the local Argive legend Perseus warred with Dionysos and his troop of island women and Ariadne was killed in the fighting.
The Thrakian king Lykourgos (Lycurgus) attacked Dionysos and his companions as they were travelling through his land and drove them into the sea. After then proceeding through Thrace without meeting with any further resistance, he returned to Thebes, where he compelled the women to quit their houses, and to celebrate Bacchic festivals on mount Cithaeron, or Parnassus. 714, &c.) After Dionysus had thus proved to the Thebans that he was a god, he went to Argos. Immortal Daimon, hear my suppliant voice, give me in blameless plenty to rejoice; and listen gracious to my mystic prayer surrounded with thy choir of nurses fair." "Liknitos (Lictinus) Dionysos, bearer of the vine, thee I invoke to bless these rites divine: florid and gay, of Nymphai (NYmphs) the blossom bright, and of fair Aphrodite, Goddess of delight.
As punishment, the god inflicted him with madness causing him to murder his wife and son and mutilate himself with an axe. 70, &c.) He is even said to have gone to Iberia, which, on leaving, he entrusted to the government of Pan. 16.) On his passage through Thrace he was ill received by Lycurgus, king of the Edones, and leaped into the sea to seek refuge with Thetis, whom he afterwards rewarded for her kind reception with a golden urn, a present of Hephaestus. Pentheus, who then ruled at Thebes, endeavoured to check the riotous proceedings, and went out to the mountains to seek the Bacchic women; but his own mother, Agave, in her Bacchic fury, mistook him for an animal, and tore him to pieces. As the people there also refused to acknowledge him, he made the women mad to such a degree, that they killed their own babes and devoured their flesh. 'Tis thine mad footsteps with mad Nymphai to beat, dancing through groves with lightly leaping feet: from Zeus' high counsels nursed by Persephoneia, and born the dread of all the powers divine.
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King Pentheus of Thebes refused to accept the god's divinity and tried to apprehend him. With the assistance of his companions, he drove the Amazons from Ephesus to Samos, and there killed a great number of them on a spot which was, from that occurrence, called Panaema. 56.) According to another legend, he united with the Amazons to fight against Cronus and the Titans, who had expelled Ammon from his dominions. Come, blessed God, regard thy suppliant's voice, propitious come, and in these rites rejoice." "Bakkhos Perikionios (Bacchus Pericionius), hear my prayer, who madest the house of Kadmos (Cadmus) once thy care, with matchless force his pillars twining round, when burning thunders shook the solid ground, in flaming, sounding torrents borne along, propped by thy grasp indissolubly strong.